A few years ago we made the difficult, and sometimes painful, shift to enable remote working in preparation for the opening of our UK and Cape Town offices. Some of you probably think this is a no-brainer, but the benefit of being in the same room as your fellow hackers can't be overlooked. Being able to call everyone over to view an epic hack, or to ask for a hand when stuck is something tools like Skype fail to provide. We've put a lot of time into getting the tech and processes in place to give us the "hackers in the same room" feel, but this needs to be backed with some IRL interaction too.
People outside of our industry seem to think of "technical" people as the opposite of "creative" people. However, anyone who's slung even a small amount of code, or even dabbled in hacking will know this isn't true. We give our analysts "20% time" each month to give that creativity an outlet (or to let on-project creativity get developed further). This is part of the intention of SenseCon: a week of space and time for intense learning, building, and just plain tinkering without the stresses of report deadlines or anything else.
But, ideas need input, so we try to organise someone to teach us new tricks. This year that was done by Schalk from House 4 Hack (these guys rocks) who gave us some electronic and Arduino skills and some other internal trainings. Also, there's something about an all-nighter that drives creativity, so much so that some Plakkers used to make sure they did one at least once a month. We use our hackathon for that.
Our hackathon's setup is similar to others - you get to pitch an idea, see if you can get two other team mates on board, and have 24 hours to complete it. We had some coolness come out of this last year and I was looking forward to seeing what everyone would come up with this time round.
Copious amounts of energy drinks, snacks, biltong and chocolates were on supply and it started after dinner together. The agreed projects were are listed below, with some vagueness, since this was internal after all :)
Keiran and Dane put our office discone antenna to good use and implemented some SDR-fu to pick up aeroplane transponder signals and decode them. They didn't find MH370, but we now have a cool plane tracker for SP.
Using wifi-deauth packets can be useful if you want to knock a station (or several) off a wifi network. Say you wanted to prevent some cheap wifi cams from picking you up ... Doing this right can get complicated when you're sitting a few km's away with a yagi and some binoculars. Charl got an arduino to raise a flag when it was successfully deauthed, and lower it when connectivity is restored for use in a wifi-shootout game.
Panda (Jeremy) and Sara ended up building local Maltego transforms that would allow mass/rapid scanning of large netblocks so you can quickly zoom in on the most vulnerable boxes. No countries were harmed in the making of this.
gcp and et decided on some good ol'fashioned fuzz-n-find bug hunting on a commercial mail platform, and websense. Along the way they learned some interesting lessons in how not to fuzz, but in the end found some coolness.
The hackathon went gangbusters; most of the team went through the night and into the morning (I didn't, getting old and crashed at 2am). Returning that morning to see everyone still hacking away on their projects (and a few hacking away on their snoring) was amazing.
Once the 24-hours was up, many left the office to grab a shower and refresh before having to present to the entire company later on that afternoon.
Overall this years SenseCon was a great success. Some cool projects/ideas were born, a good time was had AND we even made Charl feel young again. As the kids would say, #winning
We're pleased to announce our acquisition today by SecureData Europe.
SecureData (www.secdata.com) is a complete independent security services provider based in the UK and was also previously part of the SecureData Holdings group before being acquired by management in November 2012. The strategic acquisition complements SecureData's vision for enabling an end-to-end, proactive approach to security for global customers by assessing risk, detecting threats in real-time, protecting valuable assets and responding to security issues when they occur.
This deal signals the culmination of a long period of negotiation between SecureData Holdings, SecureData Europe and SensePost management and represents a cordial and amicable arrangement that is considered to be to the benefit of all three businesses. As the management of SensePost we are fully committed to this change, which we believe is in the best interests of SensePost, our staff and our customers. We believe this move will herald for us a new era of growth and development that will see us better equipped and prepared to meet the requirements of the market and fulfil our mission of providing insight, information and systems that enable our customers to make informed decisions about information security.
We look forward to a to an exciting period of innovation, growth and development that we believe this transaction will ultimately enable!
In one week, it's 44CON time again! One of our favourite UK hacker cons. In keeping with our desire to make more hackers, we're giving several sets of training courses as well as a talk this year.
Training: Hacking by Numbers - Mobile Edition
If you're in a rush, you can book here.
We created the course to share our experience testing mobile applications and platforms, and well, because lots of people asked us to. The course shows you how to test mobile platforms and installed applications for vulnerabilities. HBN Mobile provides a pretty complete and practical overview into the methods used when attacking mobile platforms and presents you with a methodology that can be applied across platforms (although we focus on iOS and Android). This course is mostly for existing penetration testers who are new to the mobile area looking to learn how to understand, analyse and audit applications on various mobile platforms.
For more information about the course, and to book a place, head over here.
Workshop: Malware Reverse Engineering
If we were marketing to hipsters, we'd use words like “bespoke” and “handcrafted” to describe this workshop. While it's not made out of yams, it was put together especially for 44con.
Inaki and Siavosh's workshop will cut through the black-magic often associated with reverse engineering and malware. Advanced attacks usually have some form of malware involved, and learning to pull these apart to understand the kill chain is an increasingly vital skill.
Using real malware used in attacks against large corporates, students will look at both behavioural analysis and code analysis, to determine what the malware does.
If you're keen to attend, speak to the 44con crew at the front desk on arrival.
Talk: 'Honey, I'm Home' - Hacking Zwave Home Automation Systems
Behrang and Sahand will be presenting the results of their research into smart homes on day two at 09:30am.
“Smart homes” employing a variety of home automation systems are becoming increasingly common. Heating, ventilation, security and entertainment systems are centrally controlled with a mixture of wired and wireless networking. In 2011 the UK market for home automation products was estimated at GBP 65 million, an increase of 12% on the previous year, with the US market exceeding $3 billion. Zigbee and Z-Wave wireless protocols underpin most home automation systems. Z-Wave is growing in popularity as it does not conflict with existing 2.4GHz WiFi and Bluetooth systems.
Their talk describes the Z-Wave protocol and a number of weaknesses, including how to build a low-cost attack kit to perform packet capture and injection, along with potential attacks on the AES crypto implementation. Bottom line: they can walk up to a house, disable security sensors, then open the front door. LIKE A BOSS
You've probably never thought of this, but the home automation market in the US was worth approximately $3.2 billion in 2010 and is expected to exceed $5.5 billion in 2016.
Under the hood, the Zigbee and Z-wave wireless communication protocols are the most common used RF technology in home automation systems. Zigbee is based on an open specification (IEEE 802.15.4) and has been the subject of several academic and practical security researches. Z-wave is a proprietary wireless protocol that works in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical radio band (ISM). It transmits on the 868.42 MHz (Europe) and 908.42MHz (United States) frequencies designed for low-bandwidth data communications in embedded devices such as security sensors, alarms and home automation control panels.
Unlike Zigbee, almost no public security research has been done on the Z-Wave protocol except once during a DefCon 2011 talk when the presenter pointed to the possibility of capturing the AES key exchange ... until now. Our Black Hat USA 2013 talk explores the question of Z-Wave protocol security and show how the Z-Wave protocol can be subjected to attacks.
The talk is being presented by Behrang Fouladi a Principal Security Researcher at SensePost, with some help on the hardware side from our friend Sahand Ghanoun. Behrang is one of our most senior and most respected analysts. He loves poetry, movies with Owen Wilson, snowboarding and long walks on the beach. Wait - no - that's me. Behrang's the guy who lives in London and has a Masters from Royal Holloway. He's also the guy who figured how to clone the SecureID software token.
Amazingly, this is the 11th time we've presented at Black Hat Las Vegas. We try and keep track of our talks and papers at conferences on our research services site, but for your reading convenience, here's a summary of our Black Hat talks over the last decade:
Setiri was the first publicized trojan to implement the concept of using a web browser to communicate with its controller and caused a stir when we presented it in 2002. We were also very pleased when it got referenced by in a 2004 book by Ed Skoudis.
A paper about targeted, effective, automated attacks that could be used in countrywide cyber terrorism. A worm that targets internal networks was also discussed as an example of such an attack. In some ways, the thinking in this talk eventually lead to the creation of Maltego.
Our thinking around pentest automation, and in particular footprinting and link analyses was further expanded upon. Here we also released the first version of our automated footprinting tool - "Bidiblah".
In this talk we literally did introduce two proxy tools. The first was "Suru', our HTTP MITM proxy and a then-contender to the @stake Web Proxy. Although Suru has long since been bypassed by excellent tools like "Burp Proxy" it introduced a number of exciting new concepts, including trivial fuzzing, token correlation and background directory brute-forcing. Further improvements included timing analysis and indexable directory checks. These were not available in other commercial proxies at the time, hence our need to write our own.
The second proxy we introduced operated at the TCP layer, leveraging off the very excellent Scappy packet manipulation program. We never took that any further, however.
This was one of my favourite SensePost talks. It kicked off a series of research projects concentrating on timing-based inference attacks against all kinds of technologies and introduced a weaponized timing-based data exfiltration attack in the form of our Squeeza SQL Injection exploitation tool (you probably have to be South African to get the joke). This was also the first talk in which we Invented Our Own Acronym.
In this talk we expanded on our ideas of using timing as a vector for data extraction in so-called 'hostile' environments. We also introduced our 'reDuh' TCP-over-HTTP tunnelling tool. reDuh is a tool that can be used to create a TCP circuit through validly formed HTTP requests. Essentially this means that if we can upload a JSP/PHP/ASP page onto a compromised server, we can connect to hosts behind that server trivially. We also demonstrated how reDuh could be implemented under OLE right inside a compromised SQL 2005 server, even without 'sa' privileges.
Yup, we did cloud before cloud was cool. This was a presentation about security in the cloud. Cloud security issues such as privacy, monoculture and vendor lock-in are discussed. The cloud offerings from Amazon, Salesforce and Apple as well as their security were examined. We got an email from Steve "Woz" Wozniak, we quoted Dan Geer and we had a photo of Dino Daizovi. We built an HTTP brute-forcer on Force.com and (best of all) we hacked Apple using an iPhone.
This was a presentation about mining information from memcached. We introduced go-derper.rb, a tool we developed for hacking memcached servers and gave a few examples, including a sexy hack of bps.org. It seemed like people weren't getting our point at first, but later the penny dropped and we've to-date had almost 50,000 hits on the presentation on Slideshare.
Python's Pickle module provides a known capability for running arbitrary Python functions and, by extension, permitting remote code execution; however there is no public Pickle exploitation guide and published exploits are simple examples only. In this paper we described the Pickle environment, outline hurdles facing a shellcoder and provide guidelines for writing Pickle shellcode. A brief survey of public Python code was undertaken to establish the prevalence of the vulnerability, and a shellcode generator and Pickle mangler were written. Output from the paper included helpful guidelines and templates for shellcode writing, tools for Pickle hacking and a shellcode library.We also wrote a very fancy paper about it all...
For this year's show we'll back on the podium with Behrang's talk, as well an entire suite of excellent training courses. To meet the likes of Behrang and the rest of our team please consider one of our courses. We need all the support we can get and we're pretty convinced you won't be disappointed.
See you in Vegas!
A few days ago, during one of those nights with the baby crying at 2:00 am and the only thing you can do is to read emails, I realised that Gmail shows the content of compressed files when reading them in Google Docs. As often is the case at SensePost, the "think evil (tm)" came to me and I started to ponder the possibilities of injecting HTML inside the file listing. The idea is actually rather simple. Looking at the file format of a .zip file we see the following:
Every file in the compressed file must have two entries; ZipFileRecord and ZipDirEntry. Both of these entries contain the filename, but only the first one contains the length of filename (it must match the actual length). Our first test case is obvious; if we could modify this name once the file was compressed, would Google sanitise it? Thankfully, the answer is, yes! (go Google!)
As you can see, Google shows the file name inside the compressed file but the tag is displayed with HTML entities. If we then try to see the contents of the file, Google responds by telling us it's not possible to read the content of the file (it's empty) and shows you the file "without formatting" after a few seconds:
Finally, the filename is shown but not sanitised:
Why this is possible?
Remember that the zip format has the name of the compressed files twice. Google uses the first one (ZipFileRecord) for displaying the file names, but in the vulnerable page it uses the second one (ZipDirEntry).
Possible attack vectors
Going back to the 'thinking evil (tm)' mindset, it is now possible to leave a "comprehensive" name in the first entry and inject the malicious payload in the second one. When I first discovered the possibility of doing this, I contacted Google, however, the XSS is in the googleusercontent.com domain, which Google's security team described as a "sandbox" domain (i.e. we aren't injecting into the DOM of google.com) and therefore not worthy of a bounty. Which I accept, if I had to prove usefulness this could be used as part of a simple social engineering attack, for example:
Leading the victim to my phishing site:
Which then proceeds to steals their Google session, or allows the attacker to use BeEF:
Granted, there are simpler ways of achieving the same result. I just wanted to demonstrate how you can use file meta-information for such an attack.