We're excited to be presenting our Hacking By Numbers Combat course again at Black Hat USA this year. SensePost's resident German haxor dude Georg-Christian Pranschke will be presenting this year's course. Combat fits in right at the top of our course offerings. No messing about, this really is the course where your sole aim is to pwn as much of the infrastructure and applications as possible. It is for the security professional looking to hone their skill-set, or to think like those in Unit 61398. There are a few assumptions though:
These targets come from real life assessments we've faced at SensePost, it's about as real as you can get without having to do the report at the end of it. How it works is that candidates are presented with a specific goal. If the presenter is feeling generous at the time, they may even get a description of the technology. After that, they'll have time to solve the puzzle. Afterwards, there will be a discussion about the failings, takeaways and alternate approaches adopted by the class. The latter is normally fascinating as (as anybody in the industry knows), there are virtually a limitless number of different ways to solve specific problems. This means that even the instructor gets to learn a couple of new tricks (we also have prizes for those who teach them enough new tricks).
In 2012, Combat underwent a massive rework and we presented a virtually new course which went down excellently. We're aiming to do the same this year, and to make it the best Combat course ever. So if you're interested in spending two days' worth of intense thinking solving some fairly unique puzzles and shelling boxen, join us for HBN Combat at BlackHat USA.
Monday morning, raring for a week of pwnage and you see you've just been handed a new assessment, awesome. The problem? It's a mobile assessment and you've never done one before. What do you do, approach your team leader and ask for another assessment? He's going to tell you to learn how to do a mobile assessment and do it quickly, there are plenty more to come.
Now you set out on your journey into mobile assessments and you get lucky, the application that needs to be assessed is an Android app. A few Google searches later and you are feeling pretty confident about this, Android assessments are meant to be easy, there are even a few tools out there that "do it all". You download the latest and greatest version, run it and the app gets a clean bill of health. After all, the tool says so, there is no attack surface; no exposed intents and the permissions all check out. You compile your report, hand it off to the client and a week later the client gets owned through the application... Apparently the backend servers were accepting application input without performing any authentication checks. Furthermore, all user input was trusted and no server side validation was being performed. What went wrong? How did you miss these basic mistakes? After-all, you followed all the steps, you ran the best tools and you ticked all the boxes. Unfortunately this approach is wrong, mobile assessments are not always simply about running a tool, a lot of the time they require the same steps used to test web applications, just applied in a different manner. This is where SensePost's Hacking by numbers: Mobile comes to the fore, the course aims to introduce you to mobile training from the ground up.
The course offers hands-on training, introducing techniques for assessing applications on Android, IOS, RIM and Windows 8. Some of the areas covered include:
On your next mobile assessment you'll be able to do both static and dynamic analysis of mobile applications. You will know where to find those credit card numbers stored on the phone and how to intercept traffic between the application and the backend servers.
The course: Hacking by numbers: Mobile
When doing wireless assessments, I end up generating a ton of different scripts for various things that I thought it would be worth sharing. I'm going to try write some of them up. This is the first one on decrypting WPA/2 PSK traffic. The second will cover some tricks/scripts for rogue access-points. If you are keen on learn further techniques or advancing your wifi hacking knowledge/capability as a whole, please check out the course Hacking by Numbers: Unplugged, I'll be teaching at BlackHat Las Vegas soon.
When hackers find a WPA/2 network using a pre-shared key, the first thing they try and do most times, is to capture enough of the 4-way handshake to attempt to brute force the pairwise master key (PMK, or just the pre-shared key PSK). But, this often takes a very long time. If you employ other routes to find the key (say a client-side compromise) that can still take some time. Once you have the key, you can of course associate to the network and perform your layer 2 hackery. However, if you had been capturing traffic from the beginning, you would now be in a position to decrypt that traffic for analysis, rather than having to waste time by only starting your capture now. You can use the airdecap-ng tool from the aircrack-ng suite to do this:
airdecap-ng -b <BSSID of target network> -e <ESSID of target network> -p <WPA passphrase> <input pcap file>
However, because the WPA 4-way handshake generates a unique temporary key (pairwise temporal key PTK) every time a station associates, you need to have captured the two bits of random data shared between the station and the AP (the authenticator nonce and supplicant nonce) for that handshake to be able to initialise your crypto with the same data. What this means, is that if you didn't capture a handshake for the start of a WPA/2 session, then you won't be able to decrypt the traffic, even if you have the key.
So, the trick is to de-auth all users from the AP and start capturing right at the beginning. This can be done quite simply using aireplay-ng:
aireplay-ng --deauth=5 -e <ESSID>
Although, broadcast de-auth's aren't always as successful as a targeted one, where you spoof a directed deauth packet claiming to come from the AP and targeting a specific station. I often use airodump-ng to dump a list of associated stations to a csv file (with --output-format csv), then use some grep/cut-fu to excise their MAC addresses. I then pass that to aireplay-ng with:
cat <list of associated station MACs>.txt | xargs -n1 -I% aireplay-ng --deauth=5 -e <ESSID> -c % mon0
This tends to work a bit better, as I've seen some devices which appear to ignore a broadcast de-auth. This will make sure you capture the handshake so airdecap can decrypt the traffic you capture. Any further legitimate disconnects and re-auths will be captured by you, so you shouldn't need to run the de-auth again.
A break down of what will be covered during this course:
What? SensePost Hacking by Numbers, Bootcamp edition
Where? Amsterdam, BlackHat EU
When? 12th & 13th March 2013
See the BlackHat course page for more information, or to book your seat.
We're looking forward to seeing you there!
Glenn & Sara
Today was our 13th birthday. In Internet years, that's a long time. Depending on your outlook, we're either almost a pensioner or just started our troublesome teens. We'd like to think it's somewhere in the middle. The Internet has changed lots from when SensePost was first started on the 14th February 2000. Our first year saw the infamous ILOVEYOU worm wreak havoc across the net, and we learned some, lessons on vulnerability disclosure, a year later we moved on to papers about "SQL insertion" and advanced trojans. And the research continues today.
We've published a few tools along the way, presented some (we think) cool ideas and were lucky enough to have spent the past decade training thousands of people in the art of hacking. Most importantly, we made some great friends in this community of ours. It has been a cool adventure, and indeed still very much is, for everyone who's has the pleasure of calling themselves a Plak'er. Ex-plakkers have gone on to do more great things and branch out into new spaces. Current Plakkers are still doing cool things too!
But reminiscing isn't complete without some pictures to remind you just how much hair some people had, and just how little some people's work habit's have changed. Not to mention the now questionable fashion.
Fast forward thirteen years, the offices are fancier and the plakkers have become easier on the eye, but the hacking is still as sweet.
As we move into our teenage years (or statesman ship depending on your view), we aren't standing still or slowing down. The team has grown; we now have ten different nationalities in the team, are capable of having a conversation in over 15 languages, and have developed incredible foos ball skills.
This week, we marked another special occasion for us at SensePost: the opening of our first London office in the trendy Hackney area (it has "hack" in it, and is down the road from Google, fancy eh?). We've been operating in the UK for some time, but decided to put down some roots with our growing clan this side of the pond.
And we still love our clients, they made us who we are, and still do. Last month alone, the team was in eight different countries doing what they do best.
But with all the change we are still the same SensePost at heart. Thank you for reminiscing with us on our birthday. Here's to another thirteen years of hacking stuff, having fun and making friends.