You've probably never thought of this, but the home automation market in the US was worth approximately $3.2 billion in 2010 and is expected to exceed $5.5 billion in 2016.
Under the hood, the Zigbee and Z-wave wireless communication protocols are the most common used RF technology in home automation systems. Zigbee is based on an open specification (IEEE 802.15.4) and has been the subject of several academic and practical security researches. Z-wave is a proprietary wireless protocol that works in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical radio band (ISM). It transmits on the 868.42 MHz (Europe) and 908.42MHz (United States) frequencies designed for low-bandwidth data communications in embedded devices such as security sensors, alarms and home automation control panels.
Unlike Zigbee, almost no public security research has been done on the Z-Wave protocol except once during a DefCon 2011 talk when the presenter pointed to the possibility of capturing the AES key exchange ... until now. Our Black Hat USA 2013 talk explores the question of Z-Wave protocol security and show how the Z-Wave protocol can be subjected to attacks.
The talk is being presented by Behrang Fouladi a Principal Security Researcher at SensePost, with some help on the hardware side from our friend Sahand Ghanoun. Behrang is one of our most senior and most respected analysts. He loves poetry, movies with Owen Wilson, snowboarding and long walks on the beach. Wait - no - that's me. Behrang's the guy who lives in London and has a Masters from Royal Holloway. He's also the guy who figured how to clone the SecureID software token.
Amazingly, this is the 11th time we've presented at Black Hat Las Vegas. We try and keep track of our talks and papers at conferences on our research services site, but for your reading convenience, here's a summary of our Black Hat talks over the last decade:
Setiri was the first publicized trojan to implement the concept of using a web browser to communicate with its controller and caused a stir when we presented it in 2002. We were also very pleased when it got referenced by in a 2004 book by Ed Skoudis.
A paper about targeted, effective, automated attacks that could be used in countrywide cyber terrorism. A worm that targets internal networks was also discussed as an example of such an attack. In some ways, the thinking in this talk eventually lead to the creation of Maltego.
Our thinking around pentest automation, and in particular footprinting and link analyses was further expanded upon. Here we also released the first version of our automated footprinting tool - "Bidiblah".
In this talk we literally did introduce two proxy tools. The first was "Suru', our HTTP MITM proxy and a then-contender to the @stake Web Proxy. Although Suru has long since been bypassed by excellent tools like "Burp Proxy" it introduced a number of exciting new concepts, including trivial fuzzing, token correlation and background directory brute-forcing. Further improvements included timing analysis and indexable directory checks. These were not available in other commercial proxies at the time, hence our need to write our own.
The second proxy we introduced operated at the TCP layer, leveraging off the very excellent Scappy packet manipulation program. We never took that any further, however.
This was one of my favourite SensePost talks. It kicked off a series of research projects concentrating on timing-based inference attacks against all kinds of technologies and introduced a weaponized timing-based data exfiltration attack in the form of our Squeeza SQL Injection exploitation tool (you probably have to be South African to get the joke). This was also the first talk in which we Invented Our Own Acronym.
In this talk we expanded on our ideas of using timing as a vector for data extraction in so-called 'hostile' environments. We also introduced our 'reDuh' TCP-over-HTTP tunnelling tool. reDuh is a tool that can be used to create a TCP circuit through validly formed HTTP requests. Essentially this means that if we can upload a JSP/PHP/ASP page onto a compromised server, we can connect to hosts behind that server trivially. We also demonstrated how reDuh could be implemented under OLE right inside a compromised SQL 2005 server, even without 'sa' privileges.
Yup, we did cloud before cloud was cool. This was a presentation about security in the cloud. Cloud security issues such as privacy, monoculture and vendor lock-in are discussed. The cloud offerings from Amazon, Salesforce and Apple as well as their security were examined. We got an email from Steve "Woz" Wozniak, we quoted Dan Geer and we had a photo of Dino Daizovi. We built an HTTP brute-forcer on Force.com and (best of all) we hacked Apple using an iPhone.
This was a presentation about mining information from memcached. We introduced go-derper.rb, a tool we developed for hacking memcached servers and gave a few examples, including a sexy hack of bps.org. It seemed like people weren't getting our point at first, but later the penny dropped and we've to-date had almost 50,000 hits on the presentation on Slideshare.
Python's Pickle module provides a known capability for running arbitrary Python functions and, by extension, permitting remote code execution; however there is no public Pickle exploitation guide and published exploits are simple examples only. In this paper we described the Pickle environment, outline hurdles facing a shellcoder and provide guidelines for writing Pickle shellcode. A brief survey of public Python code was undertaken to establish the prevalence of the vulnerability, and a shellcode generator and Pickle mangler were written. Output from the paper included helpful guidelines and templates for shellcode writing, tools for Pickle hacking and a shellcode library.We also wrote a very fancy paper about it all...
For this year's show we'll back on the podium with Behrang's talk, as well an entire suite of excellent training courses. To meet the likes of Behrang and the rest of our team please consider one of our courses. We need all the support we can get and we're pretty convinced you won't be disappointed.
See you in Vegas!
BlackOps you say?
At SensePost we have quite a range of courses in our Hacking by Numbers series. We feel each one has its own special place. I've delivered almost all the courses over the years, but my somewhat biased favourite is our relatively new BlackOps Edition. Myself (Glenn) and Vlad will be presenting this course at BlackHat Vegas in July.
Where Does BlackOps fit in?
Our introductory courses (Cadet and Bootcamp) are meant to establish the hacker mindset - they introduce the student to psychological aspects of an attacker, and build on that to demonstrate real world capability. BlackOps is designed for students who understand the basics of hacking (either from attending Bootcamp/Cadet, or from other experience) and want to acquire deeper knowledge of techniques. We built the course based on our 12 years of experience of performing security assessments.
But really, what's the course about?
This course is aimed at those who've been penetration testing for a while, but still feel a bit lost when they've compromised a host, or network and want to know the best possible approach to take for the next step. All of the labs in this course come from real life assessments, with the final lab being a full-blown social engineering attack against an admin with pivoting, exfiltration and the works. Specifically, we're going to cover the following topics:
1. Introduction to Scripting
A hacker who can automate a task is an efficient and effective attacker.
2. Advanced Targeting
A hacker who can quickly and effectively identify targets is a successful attacker. We'll be looking at non-standard techniques for identifying targets, such as mDNS, IPv6, and even Pastebin.
You may know how to roll a generic metasploit payload, but we'll be looking at some lesser utilised approaches to compromis. From WPAD injection, to rogue routers in IPv6, to good old smbrelay attacks.
4. Privilege Escalation
Following on somewhat succinctly, how do you elevate your privileges after compromising a box? Everyone wants to be root or enterprise admin.
Once you've compromised a lowly developer's test server on the edge of the network, or the receptionist PC, how do you bounce through that box to get to the good stuff, three DMZs deep? We'll show you how.
A good hacker knows that finding the jewels is only half the battle - smuggling them out can be just as hard. We'll look at how we can use non-standard communication channels to exfiltrate data out of a compromised network. Company X has just deployed a really expensive DLP solution, but you really need to get this data out, how do you bypass it?
7. Client Side Attacks
The weakest layer of the OSI stack - the human. Made über popular over the past 18 months, this is Unit 61398 in action.
8. Camouflage (new for Vegas 2013!)
During the infiltration phase of any attack, a hacker will ultimately need to try and execute code on the target system - whether achieved by means of phishing, payload delivery through an exploit or social engineering - running the code on the target system is the ultimate goal of most cyber attacks in the wild. What this means is that an attacker will need to be capable of bypassing any host-based protection software deployed on the target system for successful exploitation.
This module will run you through the techniques, methods and software currently used by the those targeting large corporates to achieve AV immunity in under any circumstances.
Each module of the above modules is followed by a practical lab to allow you to practise your newly acquired skills. The course finishes with a Capture-the-Flag, with a grand prize. Honestly, this final lab is enjoyable and guaranteed to bring a smile on your face whilst doing it.
We're looking forward to sharing out knowledge, experience, and passion for security with you. Please sign up here.
-Glenn & Vlad
We have an updated breakdown of our BlackHat courses here
With the 'early registration' discount period coming to an end on May 31, I wanted to provide an overview of what courses we're offering and how those courses fit together.
Please be sure to take advantage of these discounted prices whilst they're still available. This summary will help you decide which course is best for you...
1. "Cadet" is our intro course. It provides the theoretical and practical base required to get the most of our other courses. Don't let the introduction title put you off, this course sets the stage for the rest of the course, and indeed fills in many blanks people might have when performing offensive security assessments. We only offer it on the weekend (27th & 28th) but its really popular so we've opened a 2nd classroom. Plenty of space available, so sign up!
2. "Bootcamp" is our novice course. Its a legendary program that we've offered successfully for almost 10 years now. The course is modified and updated each year to reflect new thinking, paradigms and attack vectors, but its real beauty is in the fundamental and unchanging principles and thinking skills it presents. We've opened up additional classrooms also, so we can accommodate plenty of people.
3. Our "Unplugged" course is an entry-level wireless security-training course. It is done in the same style as our other HBN courses; highly practical with a focus on learning how things work, not just the tricks. Last year "Unplugged" sold out quickly but this year we have additional space. But please sign up before we can't take any more people there.
4. "BlackOps" is a student's final course in the Hacking By Numbers series before being deployed into "Combat." In BlackOps, students will sharpen their skills in real-world scenarios before being shipped off to battle. BlackOps covers tools and techniques to brush up your skills on data exfiltration, privilege escalation, pivoting, client-side attacks and harnessing OSINT. Students will also focus on practical elements of attacking commonly found systems and staying under the radar. BlackOps also sold really well last year, and and we can't open additional classrooms, so please sign up early.
5. "Mobile" is our very first Mobile Hacking course, and the first of its kind for beginners in this field. As mobile phone usage continues to grow at an outstanding rate, this course shows you how you would go about testing the mobile platforms and installed applications. "Mobile" will give you a complete and practical window into the methods used when attacking mobile platforms. This course is ideal for penetration testers who are new to the mobile area. Our enrolments have just reached double-figures and seats are limited, so please sign up early.
If you need help selecting the right course, or getting registered, please contact us via training[at]sensepost[dot]com.
About 50 people have already signed up. Register now to benefit from the early-registration discounts and join us in Vegas in July!
When doing wireless assessments, I end up generating a ton of different scripts for various things that I thought it would be worth sharing. I'm going to try write some of them up. This is the first one on decrypting WPA/2 PSK traffic. The second will cover some tricks/scripts for rogue access-points. If you are keen on learn further techniques or advancing your wifi hacking knowledge/capability as a whole, please check out the course Hacking by Numbers: Unplugged, I'll be teaching at BlackHat Las Vegas soon.
When hackers find a WPA/2 network using a pre-shared key, the first thing they try and do most times, is to capture enough of the 4-way handshake to attempt to brute force the pairwise master key (PMK, or just the pre-shared key PSK). But, this often takes a very long time. If you employ other routes to find the key (say a client-side compromise) that can still take some time. Once you have the key, you can of course associate to the network and perform your layer 2 hackery. However, if you had been capturing traffic from the beginning, you would now be in a position to decrypt that traffic for analysis, rather than having to waste time by only starting your capture now. You can use the airdecap-ng tool from the aircrack-ng suite to do this:
airdecap-ng -b <BSSID of target network> -e <ESSID of target network> -p <WPA passphrase> <input pcap file>
However, because the WPA 4-way handshake generates a unique temporary key (pairwise temporal key PTK) every time a station associates, you need to have captured the two bits of random data shared between the station and the AP (the authenticator nonce and supplicant nonce) for that handshake to be able to initialise your crypto with the same data. What this means, is that if you didn't capture a handshake for the start of a WPA/2 session, then you won't be able to decrypt the traffic, even if you have the key.
So, the trick is to de-auth all users from the AP and start capturing right at the beginning. This can be done quite simply using aireplay-ng:
aireplay-ng --deauth=5 -e <ESSID>
Although, broadcast de-auth's aren't always as successful as a targeted one, where you spoof a directed deauth packet claiming to come from the AP and targeting a specific station. I often use airodump-ng to dump a list of associated stations to a csv file (with --output-format csv), then use some grep/cut-fu to excise their MAC addresses. I then pass that to aireplay-ng with:
cat <list of associated station MACs>.txt | xargs -n1 -I% aireplay-ng --deauth=5 -e <ESSID> -c % mon0
This tends to work a bit better, as I've seen some devices which appear to ignore a broadcast de-auth. This will make sure you capture the handshake so airdecap can decrypt the traffic you capture. Any further legitimate disconnects and re-auths will be captured by you, so you shouldn't need to run the de-auth again.
Organising our yearly training event at Blackhat in Las Vegas is no mean feat. With well over two hundred students to prepare for, the size of Caesars Palace to contend with (last year, we, on average, walked 35 kilometers in distance just inside the hotel) and the manic environment, it's a stressful environment.
There are many Blackhat helpers running about, but none like Mr Brad 'the Nurse' Smith. Brad would always be there popping his head into our rooms, making sure us plakkers had what we needed, when we needed it and always with that trademark smile. Armed with his two-way radios (almost like a western gun-slinger in the way he was able to whip them off and put them into action in seconds), he knew who to call and where to get it. This video from Toolswatch, shot at his last Blackhat, summed up his enthusiasm:
Needless to say, our Blackhat Las Vegas experience was often made possible with a few key individuals helping us and Brad was one of them. A rather apt quote from Gert was:
Brad's health has suffered in recent years and he missed Blackhat this year, due to a stroke. No more gunslinger walking the corridors and his absence was notable. Brad's health has since deteriorated after having surgery on his skull and Nina's recently made the hard decision to have all medications stopped and feeding tube turned off with the exception of pain medications as needed.He is the guy that got shit sorted *full stop*
Our thoughts are with Brad's family and Nina right now in this hard hour. Brad, you will be missed by the crazy South Africans (and other nationalities!) at SensePost. Thanks for all your help over the past many years.